Vim Control Sequence Examples

When a user uses the control sequence, the remote host can control the Tera Term behavior. The Vim procedure for using the control sequence is described below.

Changing cursor shape on entering and leaving into insert mode

Tera Term can support below control sequence changing the cursor shape.

Abbreviation Sequence Function
DECTCEM ESC [ ? 25 h Makes the cursor visible
ESC [ ? 25 l Makes the cursor invisible
DECSCUSR ESC [ 0 SP q Blink Block
ESC [ 1 SP q Blink Block
ESC [ 2 SP q Steady Block
ESC [ 3 SP q Blink Underline
ESC [ 4 SP q Steady Underline
ESC [ 5 SP q Blink Vertical line
ESC [ 6 SP q Steady Vertical line
WYSTCURM ESC [ 33 h Steady Wyse Cursor
ESC [ 33 l Blink Wyse Cursor
WYULCURM ESC [ 34 h Steady Wyse underline cursor
ESC [ 34 l Steady Wyse block cursor
(AT&T 610) ESC [ ? 12 l Steady Cursor
ESC [ ? 12 h Blink Cursor

The vim cursor can be changed in the insert mode to output above control sequences when a user enters(t_SI) and leaves(t_EI).
For example, when below contents is added in the .vimrc file, the cursor style is vertical line and blinking in the insert mode, the cursor style is underline and blinking in the replace mode, and the cursor style is block and blinking in the normal mode.

let &t_SI .= "\e[5 q"
let &t_SR .= "\e[3 q"
let &t_EI .= "\e[1 q"

NOTICE: If a user uses the control sequence except the DECTCEM, turn on the Cursor control sequence of the Additional Settings dialog(The default value is off).

Auto indent can be disabled on pasting from clipboard

NOTE: When text is pasted by using Vim 8.0.0238 or later , auto indent and completion are disabled not below configuration becasue the vim editor supports Bracketed Paste Mode.
However, when tmux is used, below configuration is needed because Bracketed Paste Mode is not enabled.

Basically, the host application can not recognize the difference between the user input and pasting from clipboard. However, when a user uses the Bracketed Paste Mode as the xterm extension, the application can recognize its difference and a user can change the behavior of pasting from clipboard.

The vim configuration is described below. The following will use xterm's bracketed paste mode to make pasting automatically enable paste mode and insert mode. Also works fine in ~/.vimrc file.

if has("patch-8.0.0238")
    " When below configuration is not set by using Bracketed Paste Mode supporting version(8.0.0238 or later),
    " the Bracketed Paste Mode is used while TERM is xterm.
    " When tmux is used, below configuration is needed because TERM is screen.
    if &term =~ "screen"
        let &t_BE = "\e[?2004h"
        let &t_BD = "\e[?2004l"
        exec "set t_PS=\e[200~"
        exec "set t_PE=\e[201~"
    endif
else
    " The Bracketed Paste Mode motion of Vim core will not work well, 
    " auto indent does not become to disabling, with Vim from 8.0.0210 to 8.0.0237 version.
    " So, Vim core function is disabled.
    if has("patch-8.0.0210")
        set t_BE=
    endif

    " When Vim core does not support Bracketed Paste Mode, below configuration works.
    if &term =~ "xterm" || &term =~ "screen"
        let &t_ti .= "\e[?2004h"
        let &t_te .= "\e[?2004l"

        function XTermPasteBegin(ret)
            set pastetoggle=<Esc>[201~
            set paste
            return a:ret
        endfunction

        noremap <special> <expr> <Esc>[200~ XTermPasteBegin("0i")
        inoremap <special> <expr> <Esc>[200~ XTermPasteBegin("")
        vnoremap <special> <expr> <Esc>[200~ XTermPasteBegin("c")
        cnoremap <special> <Esc>[200~ <nop>
        cnoremap <special> <Esc>[201~ <nop>
    endif
endif

When a user pastes at the normal mode by using the above configuration, the mode will be automatically changed to the insert mode and do the paste. If this behavior is denied, use the below configuration.
Also, refer to the GNU Screen Notice.

if &term =~ "xterm"
    let &t_SI .= "\e[?2004h"
    let &t_EI .= "\e[?2004l"

    function XTermPasteBegin(ret)
        set pastetoggle=<Esc>[201~
        set paste
        return a:ret
    endfunction

    inoremap <special> <expr> <Esc>[200~ XTermPasteBegin("")
endif

About Bracketed Paste mode

The bracketed paste mode is the xterm extension feature. When this feature is enabled, the pasted text is bracketed with control sequences so that the program can differentiate the pasted text from typed-in text.
The program will receive: ESC [ 200 ~, followed by the pasted text, followed by ESC [ 201 ~.

Controlling IME

Tera Term can support the original sequence to control the IME behavior. For example, A user can switch the IME status of enabling and disabling to use this control sequence.

When below contents is be added in the .vimrc file, the IME status is off after the insert mode exiting. Next, the IME status is on after the insert mode enabling.

let &t_SI .= "\e[<r"
let &t_EI .= "\e[<s\e[<0t"
let &t_te .= "\e[<0t\e[<s"

set timeoutlen=100

When the timeoutlen of the vim is enabled, the vim will wait until either the complete mapping or key sequence has been received. In other words, the timeoutlen is used to describe the time from IME on to off after the ESC key is pressed in the insert mode.
If the timeoutlen is the small value, a trouble may occur that the cursor and function key do not work well.
As an alternative, please use the Delete wait time after ESC key is pushed in insert mode.

Delete wait time after ESC key is pushed in insert mode

When the ESC key is pressed, Tera Term, xterm and other terminal emulator send the ESC(0x1b) key code. Also, when the cursor key and the function key is pushed, Tera Term sends the ESC key code. Therefore, the host application can not recognize whether the ESC key is pressed.
So, the vim waits for one second when the ESC key code is received to recognize what key is pressed. As a result, when a user presses the ESC key, the time for the insert mode exiting will be late for 1 second. This behavior can not be affected by enabling Changing cursor shape on entering and leaving into insert mode and Controlling IME.

Please use the Application Escape Mode to resolve this problem. When below contents is added in the .vimrc file, the insert mode is quickly exited after the ESC key is pressed.

let &t_SI .= "\e[?7727h"
let &t_EI .= "\e[?7727l"
inoremap <special> <Esc>O[ <Esc>

Save and Restore Window Title

Tera Term can support the xterm control sequence changing the window title. For example, in case of vim, when the "set title" is executed, the window title will be displayed at the current file name.
However, the vim can change the window title, the vim can not know the old title. So, the vim can not restore the old title, and then the vim will display the "Thanks for flying Vim".

To solve this problem, use the Save and Restore Window Title function. When below configuration is added in the .vimrc file, the vim can save the window title on launching the vim, and then restore the window title on existing the vim.

let &t_ti .= "\e[22;0t"
let &t_te .= "\e[23;0t"

Speed up vsplit scrolling

The vim will slow down by using the vsplit function for a reason of the VT100 and VT200 series specification based on many terminal emulators.

The VT100 specification has the scroll range function(scroll region and vertical margin). For example, when the upper margin is fifth line and the lower margin is twentyth line, the scroll region will be set from fifth to twentyth line. So, a user can not specify the digit unit of the vertical direction.
As a result, the scroll speed will be slow down because the scroll range needs to re-paint all region.

However, the VT400 series specification has the scroll range function(horizontal margin), and then Tera Term 4.79 later has supported this function. When a user configures below settings in the .vimrc file, the vsplit scroll will be speed up.

if &term =~ "xterm"
    let &t_ti .= "\e[?6h\e[?69h"
    let &t_te .= "\e7\e[?69l\e[?6l\e8"
    let &t_CV = "\e[%i%p1%d;%p2%ds"
    let &t_CS = "y"
endif

NOTE: The terminal emulators not supporting the horizontal margin can not work the vsplit function by using this configuration. For example, the xterm, mlterm, RLogin, tanasinn and pangoterm terminal emulator can support this function, but other terminal emulators can not support its.

GNU Screen Notice

When the GNU Screen is used, an application on the screen sends the control sequence and the sequence will be abandoned because the screen can not support the sequence.

if &term == "screen"
    let &t_SI .= "\eP\e[3 q\e\\"
    let &t_EI .= "\eP\e[1 q\e\\"
else
    let &t_SI .= "\e[3 q"
    let &t_EI .= "\e[1 q"
endif

Use the above configuration to resolve this problem. When the terminal type is `screen', the vim entry sandwiches in the sequence between the "\eP" and "\e\\".
However, the screen can not work to switch the window because the sequence can not be managed by the screen.


Vim Configuration

Background color

The vim editor can automatically recognize the terminal color number, namely the 256 color supporting because the Tera Term 4.83 or later supports the Termcap String Query of xterm. So, a user must properly configure the background setting to draw the highlight color regarding the vim background color.
When the background color is the dark color(i.e, black), specify the dark setting. Also, when the background color is the bright color(i.e, white), specify the light setting.

set background=dark

With above setting, the vim can know the terminal background color. So, if the configuration is mistaken, the highlight color will be indistinct because the text and the background color is almost same.
If the vim automatic recognition of color is stopped, add the set t_RV= entry in the .vimrc file. However, the automatic recognition of mouse type is stopped.

Also, refer to the :help 'background' on the vim editor for details.